Types of Dyslexia
While it is the most common language-based learning disability, there are many types of dyslexia, and a variety of classifications and different criteria are used when diagnosing and identifying the condition.
The two main types of dyslexia are developmental dyslexia and acquired dyslexia, with many different symptom classifications and variations arising from there.
- Acquired dyslexia - The primary type of acquired dyslexia is what is commonly called "trauma dyslexia", meaning that some type if brain trauma caused the dyslexia, and it was not something that was present in childhood.
- Developmental - This type of dyslexia is present at birth, and manifests itself as the child learns to speak, read, and write. It is broken down into several different types of dyslexia.
- Surface dyslexia - The patient can read phonetically, but has trouble recognizing words as a whole.
- Phonological dyslexia - Can read familiar words that they have previously learned, but have trouble learning new words since it is difficult for them to sound them out phonetically.
- Spelling dyslexia - Can read individual letters, but has trouble putting them into full words, making spelling extremely difficult.
- Direct dyslexia - Can read aloud on command, but has difficulty fully understanding what they have just read since the relationship between words and meanings is difficult for them to process.
From there, these types of dyslexia are broken down into several types of symptom classifications, since each person expresses their dyslexia in different ways.
- Visuo-spacial dyslexia - Does not recognize groups of letters as words. People with visuo-spacial dyslexia may also reverse letters in words, transpose syllables, read words backwards, or have trouble writing (dysgraphia).
- Speech-sound - Has trouble understanding the different sounds that letters make, therefore making it difficult to break words into syllables and create coherent sentences.
- Correlating - Trouble finding appropriate sounds for letters. May be able to read to themselves and understand what they are seeing, but finds it difficult to read aloud.
These are just some of the general types if dyslexia. These types may have different names in other institutions, but the symptoms remain the same. If you suspect your child may be suffering from reading difficulties or would like more information on the types of dyslexia, consult with an experienced health care professional to receive a proper diagnosis.